Old B.ed Syllabus





Unit I

1. Nature, Meaning and Functions of Education. Its objectives in relation to time and place.  Distinction between education and :

a) Instruction

b) Training

c) Introduction

d) Literacy

2. Agencies of Education: Meaning, importance and role of each of the following agencies :

Formal agencies : School and State

Informal agencies : Home, community, peer-groups, Mass media

Non-formal agencies : Continuing Education, National Literacy Mission

3. Aims of Education in Contemporary Indian Society:

Education for:       

a) values

b) modernization

c) vocationalization

d) health (physical, mental and emotional), and

e) development of democratic outlook.

Unit II

1. Philosophy and Education: Significance of studying philosophy in understanding educational practices and problems. Indian philosophy of education :

a) Salient features of Indian philosophy

b) Concept of knowledge according to Indian Philosophy

c) Indian thought and its contribution to educational practices.

2. Major philosophical systems, their salient features and their impact on education with reference to aims, curriculum, methods of teaching and role of teacher:

a) Idealism with reference to Plato, Socrates and Advaita Philosophy

b) Naturalism with reference to the views of Rousseau and Rabindera Nath Tagore.

c) Pragmatism with reference to John Dewey’s “Instrumentalism and Experimentalism”

3. Salient features of the following philosophical systems and their impact on education with reference to aims, curriculum methods of teaching and role of teachers:

a) Realism with reference to Aristotle and Jainism

b) Humanism – historical and scientific and Buddhism.

Unit III

1. Contribution of the following educational thinkers :

a) Swami Vivekananda: Man making education.

b) Sri Aurbindo : Integral education, its basic premises and stages of development

c) Froebel: The play-way method.

2. Indian Constitution :

a) Its directive principles

b) Its various articles related to education

c) Meaning of secularism and social goals

d) Democracy and socialistic pattern of society.

3. National and Emotional Integration :

a) Meaning, Barriers and role of education in the promotion of national and emotional integration :

b) Recommendations of :

i) Indian Education Commission (1964-66)

ii) Education Policy (1986) / Programme of Action (1992)

c) Philosophy of celebration of Indian festivals.

d) i) Nationalism – Meaning, problems of nationalism and role of education.

    ii) National character – Meaning, problems and role of education.


Unit IV

1. Sociological basis of education :

a) Concept of sociology and sociology of education

b) Relationship between individual to individual, and

c) Individual to society in terms of norms given by the existing social order.

2. Education as liberal and utilitarian, education as a means of National Welfare through the   immediate welfare of the society and education for human resource development.

3. Social change: meaning, factors viz., caste, ethnicity, clan, language, religion, regional and sectional imbalances and role of education.

Unit V

1. Structure and concerns of Modern Indian Society :

a) Structure of Indian society : class, caste, religion, ethnicity and language

b) Concerns of Indian society :

i) democracy, social justice and equality, human rights, secularism;

ii) gender equality, social cohesion, population explosion

iii) environmental degradation, globalization and privatisation.

2. Culture: Meaning, salient features of Indian culture, cultural heritage and role of education, contribution of different religions towards human upliftment and philosophy of celebration of different festivals.

3. New Social Order :

i) Meaning, eradication of illiteracy, objectives of National Adult Education Programme (NAEP).

ii) Educating socially, culturally and economically deprived members of the Indian society

iii) Means and measures taken for equality of opportunities in terms of castes, tribes, disabled, gender, minorities and poverty.



Psychology of Teaching –Learning Process


1. Nature and scope of educational psychology, contribution of psychology in the field of education and role of teacher.

2. Human growth and developmental meaning, principles, difference between growth and development; role of heredity and environment in human development; stages of human development physical, social, emotional and intellectual development during adolescents, guiding and counseling for adolescents (Role of School Teacher).

3. Methods of studying behaviour: meaning, process, merits and demerits of the following :

a) Observation,                                       

b) Experimental, and

c) Clinical


1. a) Learning: Nature of learning, factors influencing learning (personal and environmental).  Domains of learning (cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor)

     b) Theories of learning with educational implications:

i) Learning by Trial and Error

ii) Classical conditioning

iii) Insight theory

iv) Operant conditioning

2. Motivation: Meaning of motivation, types of motivation, techniques of enhancing learner’s motivation in teaching-learning process, factors influencing motivation.

3. Memory and forgetting: Nature of memory, types of memory, methods of memorizing, causes of forgetting and improvement of memory.



1. Intelligence :

a) Nature of intelligence, concept of IQ and constancy of I.Q. Terman’s classification on the basis of IQ

b) Theories of Intelligence: Spearman’s Two-factor theory, Thorndike’s Multifactor theory and Thurston’s Group Factor theory. Educational implications of each theory.

c) Measurement of intelligence: verbal, non-verbal and performance tests.

2. Creativity: Concept of creativity, difference between creativity and intelligence, methods of developing creativity (Brain-storming, group discussion, play-way, problem solving and quiz), Role of teacher in promoting creativity.

3. a) Adjustment: Meaning of adjustment, characteristics of a well adjusted person;    maladjustment, causes and detection of maladjustment; frustration and conflicts; role of teachers in the process of adjustment.

   b) Mental Hygiene: Concept, functions, factors affecting mental health, factors causing dissatisfaction among teachers and characteristics of mentally healthy teacher.


1. Personality – Nature and types; development of personality – biological and socio-cultural determines; trait theories of personality (Cattell & Allport), assessment of personality – subjective, objective and projective techniques.

2. Exceptional children:

i) Concept of exceptional children – types, characteristics of each type including children with learning disabilities.

ii) Learner centered techniques for teaching exceptional children.

3. a) Delinquency : Meaning, symptoms, causes and remedial measures.

    b) Emotionally disturbed children, concept, etiology and educational provisions.


1. Statistics: Meaning, use of statistics in education, concept of continuous and discrete series, tabulation of raw scores into frequency distribution.

2. Measures of central tendency: Concept and calculation of mean, Median and Mode, Merits and demerits of mean, median and mode.

3. Measure of Variability: Meaning and computations of quartile and standard deviation, merits and demerits of each.







1. a) Meaning, scope and objectives of school management.

    b) Meaning and scope of pedagogic of education

2. Role of head of the school (headmaster / principal) and teachers as elements of school management.






3. School plant :

a) Concept

b) Library

c) Laboratory

d) Hostel

e) Playground


1. School complex: concept, objectives and programmes for effective implementation.

2. Institutional planning : concept, objectives, characteristics and steps for the preparation of an effective institutional plan, role of head of the institution in planning, decision making and execution (approaches), delegation of powers

3. School records : concept, objectives, salient features, types, including cumulative records, data entry of records in computer related to admission, profile of students, unit plan/term, preparation of a format for and terminal records.


1. a) Micro –Teaching : Nature, main proposition, phases, steps, different skills, merits and demerits.

    b) Principles of successful teaching and maxims of teaching.

2. Professional ethics for teachers: Meaning, need and significance of professional ethical code for teachers, ethical oath for teachers – obligation towards:

3. Effective teacher: Meaning, characteristics of an effective teacher, conditions essential for promoting effective teaching.


1. Devices of teaching : Meaning, importance, types of devices of teaching :

a) Teaching Devices: Meaning oral communication; exposition, narration, description, explanation, illustration, questioning, chalk-board, home-work, textbooks, reference books.

b) Fixing Devices: Meaning and types (drill, review, recapitulation and repetitive practice).

2. Audio-visual aids : Meaning, objectives, classification, importance, advantages and limitations of :

a) Audio aids : Radio, tape-recorder

b) Visual aids: Over-head projector, slide projector, maps, charts, models, flash cards, display boards and diagrams.

c) Audio-visual aids: films with sound tracks television.

d) Preparation of Unit, daily, yearly lesson plans.

3. Lesson Planning:

a) Meaning, importance, principles of planning, criteria of an effective lesson plan

b) Types of lessons : Knowledge, skill and appreciation lessons, significance and steps of each lesson

c) Approaches to lesson, planning : Herbartian and RCEM approaches

d) Preparation of unit/yearly/lesson plan.


1. School – Community Relationship : Meaning, significance, factors affecting school-community relationship, techniques of establishing relationship between school and community, organization of Village Education Committees (VECs) and role of Panchayats.

2. Methods of teaching : Meaning, importance, procedure, advantages and limitations of :

a) Inductive –Deductive method

b) Analytical –Synthetic method

c) Project method

d) Problem solving method

3. a) Accountability in school education: Meaning, methods used for assessing accountability, use of professional norms and ethics.

    b) Time Management: Time table, its importance and types, time schedules for various activities of school weekly, monthly and yearly calendar of activities.







1. Education in India during

a) Vedic period

b) Buddhist period

c) Medieval period

          Detailed description of salient features, objectives, curriculum, methods of teaching, role of teacher of these systems of education.

2. a) Charter Act of 1813

    b) Macaulay’s minutes and Bentinck’s resolution of 1835.

    c) Adam’s Report (1838) and its recommendations.

3. Wood’ Dispatch of 1854: Recommendations, importance and limitation of Wood’s dispatch.


1. Hunter Commission (1882): Recommendations of Hunter Commission of 1882, its influence on the subsequent development of education in India.

2. Lord Curzon’s Educational Policy. Growth of national consciousness. National educational movement.

3. Essential features of Sadler Commission (1917-19) and its impact on Indian education.


1. Wardha Scheme of Education (1937): Salient features, recommendations and its impact on Indian education.

2. Sargent Committee Report (1944) on Basic and Secondary Education.

3. University Education Committee (1948-49):Salient features, recommendations and its impact on Indian education.


1. Review of Secondary Education after independence with special reference to :

    Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) and its impact on Indian education

2. Recommendations of Indian Education Commission (1964-66) and its impact on Indian   education.

3. National Policy of Education (1986): Salient features and critical appraisal of National Policy   of Education (1986).

    Recommendations of the revised National Policy on Education (1992).


1. Distance Education: Concept, Growth, Features, Methods of imparting Distance Education through Open University and Correspondence Courses (Features, Procedure and Problems).

2. Vocationalisation of secondary education: Its need and implications. Problems of  vocationalisation of secondary education in India.

3. a) Teacher education at secondary level : pre-service and in-service in J&K State.

    b) Universalisation of elementary education: Concept and problems of universalisation of elementary education in India, present programmes of UEE and critical appraisal of Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan with special reference to J&K State.

    c) Environmental Education: Concept, need, objectives at Secondary School level, methods of improving environment with special reference to role of education.


Paper-V- A

Essentials of Educational Technology


1. Definition of educational technology, distinction between hardware and software technologies. Their role in modern educational practices.

2. Hardware technologies : Important accessories and the application – Over Head Projector, Still and Movie Projectors, Audio-Video recording instruments, television , computers.

3. Behavioural Objectives: Meaning, importance, Bloom’s taxonomy of instructional objectives, formulation instructional objectives (Merger).


1. Programmed learning: Meaning, origin, principles of programmed learning.

2. Linear, branching and skip linear programmes. Advantages and limitations of programmed learning steps of the development of programmed instructional material – preparation, writing and evaluation.

3. Computer Assisted Instruction: Concept, instructional uses of computers, advantages and limitation of Computer Assisted Instruction.


1. Communication Process: Concept and process, principles of communication, barriers in communication, classroom communication (verbal and non-verbal).

2. Modification of Teacher Behaviour – Flanders’ Interaction Analysis: Concept, basic assumptions, procedure, advantages and limitations.

3. Team teaching: Meaning, origin, objectives, types, principles, procedure, advantages and limitations.


1. Action research: Concept, procedure and significance in teacher education.

2. Evaluating institutional performance: Concept, methods used – pupil evaluation, teacher evaluation, evaluation of institutional performance.

3. Methods of teacher evaluation: Use of pupil rating, peer rating, supervisor rating, community rating.


1. Information Technology: Meaning, nature and significance of information technology in teaching-learning process, different media of information technology.

2. Multimedia approach to education. Role of video conferencing, radio conferencing, television, EDUSATand Internet in teaching-learning process. Their advantages and limitations.

3. Role and composition of Central Institute of Education and Technology, National Open School, State Educational Technology Cells, Indira Gandhi National Open University and their role for the improvement of teaching learning.




Unit-I: Intrduction

1. Information Technology: Concept, approaches, taxonomy of information system, information technology and computers.

2. History of computers, types, generation of digital computers, characteristics and applications. Benefits and limitations of computers.

3. CPU, Memory, types of memories, storage devices, Input-output devices.

Unit-II: Operating System :

1. Functions of operating system, types, single user and multi-user, operating system – CUI and GUI.

2. Disk operating System (DOS), internal & external commands. Directory and file related commands, Format, F-disk commands.

3. Introduction to MS Windows, anatomy of windows, files and folders, icons, screen saver.

Unit-III: Word Processing:

1. Introduction to MS-Word, creation and editing of document, bold, italics, underline, type of font, line spacing, margins, paragraphs, cut and paste, copy and paste, basic editing tips, printing, page set up, find, find replace, spell and grammar, creation of tables, table properties, clip art mail merge.

2. Introduction to MS-Excel

3. Introduction to Computer Systems:

a) DBMS & Database Software

b) FoxPro

Unit-IV: Network & Internet:

1. Definition of Network, LAN and their uses.

2. Internet, evolution and services.

3. WWW, search engine, utility of internet for teacher trainees.

Unit-V: Applications of Computer:

1. Concept and significance of Computer Managed Learning (CML) and Computer Assisted  Learning (CAL)

2. Concept of CD Magazines and E-books, their advantages and limitations.

3. Use of Computers in teaching and evaluation, multi-media approach to teaching – learning process.



Guidance And Counseling


1. Education and Vocational Guidance:

     a) Meaning of guidance, need for guidance and its scope in India, aims of guidance.

     b) Foundations of guidance (Philosophical, Psychological and Socio-cultural).

     c) History of Guidance Movement in India and U.K.


1. Types of guidance (Education, Vocational and Personal).

2. Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance:

- Interview

- Observation

- Case Study

- Commulative Record

- Socio-metric techniques

3. Testing Techniques in Guidance

i) Role of testing techniques in Guidance:

ii) Use of psychological tests, appraisal of intelligence and personality tests, aptitude tests.


1. Guidance Services:

    Purpose, principles of organization, guidance services at elementary and secondary levels.

2. Guidance Services:

a) Individual Inventory Service

b) Placement Service

c) Follow-up Service

3. Roles of the following in the Guidance Services:

a) Head of the institution

b) Teacher

c) Counsellor

d) Parent’s role

e) Outline Programme of Guidance Services.


1. Career information: Meaning of career and career information, components of career information. Need, importance and objectives to study career information at different school levels, sources of career information, methods of collection, classification, filling up and evaluation of information.

2. Date gathering techniques:

- Job analysis

- Survey method

3. Occupational information, meaning and importance, information about education and job opportunities and personal and social information. Disseminations of information through

i) Career talks

ii) Exhibition

iii) Class talks

iv) Career Resource Centre (Importance and organization).





1. Counseling:

i) Meaning, purposes, elements of counseling types (directive – non –directive),             counseling and psychotherapy.

ii) Counseling interview: Concept, importance, steps, merits and demerits.

iii) Qualities of a counsellor, role of counsellor in counseling.





Educational Measurement & Evaluation



1. Concept of measurement and evaluation in education, difference between measurement and evaluation, scales of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval and radio scales).

2. Teaching-learning process and evaluation, need and importance of evaluation, characteristics of good evaluation.

3. Approaches to evaluation: Formative and summative evaluation, difference between formative and summative evaluation.


1. Action Research: Concept of action research, importance of action research, steps of conducting action research, limitations of action research.

2. Techniques of Evaluation:

a) Psychological tests (intelligence, personality and aptitude tests)

b) Rating scales

c) Questionnaire

d) Interview

e) Observation

3. Characteristics of a good test:

           a) Validity b) Reliability c) Norms d) Usability


1. Achievement test: Meaning of achievement, steps in the construction and standardization of   an achievement test

a) Writing of item

b) Item analysis

c) Reliability

d) Validity

e) Norms

2. Knowledge of standard tests, teacher – made tests and diagnostic tests, difference between the three tests, uses and limitations of standardized teacher-made and diagnostic tests.

3. Criterion – referenced tests:

    Meaning, steps in the construction of criterion-referenced and norm-referenced (traditional) tests.


1. Types of Tests: Essay type, objective type, their merits and demerits.

2. Measure of Relative position: Uses, limitations and computations of :

a) Percentile

b) Percentile Rank

c) Standard Scores

3. Normal distribution curve-characteristics and application of normal distribution curve.

a) Determination of standard scores from raw scores.

b) Determination of percent of cases and number of cases falling above, below and between and given scores from the mean.


1. Measures of Relationship: Concept, uses and computation of co-efficient of correlation using Pearson’s Product Movement Method (ungrouped data) and Spearman’s Rank Difference Method.

2. Hypothesis Testing: Meaning of null hypothesis, level of confidence, degree of freedom.

3. Testing significance of difference between means for small and large samples (uncorrelated).








1. Nature, objectives and scope of educational administration, concept of educational management, human beings as inputs, process and products.

2. Different patterns of educational administration

a) Administration: Centralised and decentralized

b) Human relationship approach to administration

3. Role and functions of head masters and teachers: Basic functions of administration – planning, organizing, directing and controlling.


1. Leadership in educational administration: meaning and nature of Leadership, Theories of Leadership and Assessment of Leadership.

2. Educational Planning: Meaning and Nature, Approaches to Educational Planning and perspective planning.

3. Communication in educational administration: Role of communication in school management and administration, methods of communication, barriers of communication in educational administration and overcoming these communication barriers.


1. Structure and Development of Education in the State of J&K. The existing educational ladder, control of school education in the state – a critical analysis.

2. Inspection Agencies and their problems with special reference to the expanding system of education in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Defects in existing educational administration and supervision in the state of J&K.

3. Functions of the state government in relation to secondary and higher secondary schools.


1. The organization of Education in India

    Relation between the Centre and State in the field of educational administration. Roles if Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) towards National System of Education.

2. Composition and functions of the following:

a) National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)

b) University Grants Commission (UGC)

c) National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA)

3. Composition and functions of the following:

a) District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) and State Institute of Education (SIE)

b) Board of Secondary Education in Controlling Schools (CBSE and State Board).

c) Problems of Secondary School Administration in Government Schools.


1. Educational Supervision : Meaning and Nature, supervision as service activity, supervision as a process, supervision as functions, supervision as educational leadership, functions of supervision, planning and organizing, supervisory programmes, types of supervision, drawbacks in present supervision.

2. Problems of Financing Education in India – resources and expenditure of education.

3. Monitoring and evaluation in terms of modern management techniques – case stud manpower surveys.







Unit-I: Environmental Education:

1. Concept, scope and importance of Environmental Education.

2. Objectives of Environmental Education at secondary school level

3. Approaches of Environmental Education, role of Environmental and Natural resources in sustainable development.

Unit-II: Environmental Hazards:

1. Causes and effects of environmental hazards, global and local: environmental pollution (Soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution) and its remedies.

2. Green House effect – an impending catastrophe.

3. Ozone layer depletion – environmental threat, acid rain, pillar melting, rise of sea level and their implications.

Unit-III: Environmental Awareness:

1. Salient features of environmental awareness through education: programmes of environmental education for secondary school children.

2. Programmes of environmental education for attitude changes among the children.

3. Curriculum development in environmental education.

Unit-IV : Man and Environment:

1. Man as a creator and destroyer, effect of human activities on environment, values and ethics related to environment.

2. Biodiversity: Conservation of genetic diversity. An important environmental priority: Learning to live in harmony with nature.

3. Miscellaneous Environmental Issues :

i) Forests and their conservation

ii) Wildlife and its conservation

iii) Conservation of energy resources

iv) Alternate sources of energy

v) Waste management

vi) Population and environment

Unit-V: Sustainable Development:

1. Sustainable development, environmental education for development conservation of soil, water, forests, wild life, movement to save environment, eco-friendly technology.

2. National Parks, sanctuaries and Zoos, plan and projects of Environmental protection like Save Dal, Save Hangul, Save tiger project and Chipko movement.

3. Projects in Environmental Education in India and abroad.





Teaching of Hindi



1. Origin of development of Hindi language and. Objectives of teaching Hindi at elementary and secondary levels.

2. Role of Hindi as a link and national language. Problems of Hindi teaching. Contributions of : Tulsidas, Surdas, Bhartendu Harishchandra, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Sumitra Nandan Pant, Mahadevi Verma.

3. Behavioural objectives : Meaning and importance of behavioural objectives, essentials of behavioural  objectives, writing behavioural objectives for teaching Hindi – prose, poetry and composition.


1. Curriculum : Meaning, importance and principles of preparing good Hindi curriculum at secondary level. Principles and rationale of curriculum development.

2. Text book : Meaning and importance of Hindi textbook, qualities of a good textbook in the subject of Hindi.

3. Co-curricular activities : Meaning, importance of co-curricular activities for teaching Hindi through :

i) Literary Clubs

ii) School Magazine

iii) Debates

iv) Dramatics


1. Development of the following linguistic skills:

i) Listening

ii) Speaking

iii) Reading

iv) Writing

2. Reading and Writing

    Concept, meaning and importance of reading .Types of reading : Silent/low, extensive and intensive. Defects in writing skills and their improvement, elaboration and summarization, essay and letter writing.

3. i) Aims of teaching prose, poetry, drama and composition at various levels.

    ii) Methods of teaching prose, poetry, composition and grammar.


1. Audio Visuals aids :

    Meaning and importance of audio-visual aids in teaching Hindi viz Chalk-board, models, charts, audio tapes, video tapes, television, computers and language laboratory.

2. Development of teaching skills :

    Concept, components and preparation of any three Micro lessons plans for developing skills of :

i) Questioning

ii) Reinforcement

iii) Explanation

iv) Illustration with examples and visuals

v) Stimulus variation

3. Lesson planning : Meaning and importance of lesson plans at macro level, meaning and purpose of unit and monthly plans.


1. Steps for preparing lesson plans for teaching Hindi using Herbartian and RCEM approaches. Advantages and limitations of these approaches.

2. Preparation of lesson plans for teaching prose and poetry at the secondary level.

3. Evaluation in Hindi in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behavioural developments.Diagnostic testing, error analysis and remedial teaching





Teaching of General Science


1. Concept of Science and General Science. Need and place of general science in school curriculum,objectives of teaching general science at secondary stage with special reference to Tara Devi Seminar, Kothari commission and Ishwar Bhai Committee. Impact of Science on society. Globalisation and Science.

2. Path breaking discoveries and land mark development in science. Eminent world scientist and eminent Indian scientists.

3. Role of school and teacher in teaching of general science. Qualities of a science teacher.


1. Behavioural objectives: Meaning and importance of behavioural objectives, steps for preparing behavioural objectives for teaching of general science.

2. Curriculum: Meaning, importance and principles of designing a good curriculum for general science. Concentric, topical and integrated approaches in organizing curriculum for general science.

3. Textbooks: Meaning and importance of textbooks in teaching of general science. Qualities of a good textbook of general science. Role of textbooks and encyclopedia in teaching of science.


1. Co-curricular Activities: Meaning and importance of co-curricular activities. Steps of organizing co-curricular activities. Role and organization of the following in teaching of general science.

a) Field trips

b) Science clubs

c) Science museums

d) Aquariums

e) Herbariums and virariums

f) Science fairs

g) School gardening

h) Preparation of low-cost teaching aids.

2. Audio-visuals Aids: Meaning, importance and classification of audio-visuals aids viz.,

a) Chalk – board

b) Models and specimens

c) Scrap-books

d) Radio

e) Films

f) Television

g) OHP and Computers.

3. Methods of teaching general science:

a) Lecture Method

b) Lecture cum demonstration Method

c) Project Method

d) Problem – Solving Method

e) Inductive – Deductive Method

f) Heuristic Method


1. Development of teaching skills : Concept, components and preparation of any Micro-teaching lesson plans for developing the skill of :

a) Questioning

b) Reinforcement

c) Explanation

d) Illustration with examples and visuals

e) Stimulus variation

     2. Lesson planning: Meaning and importance of lesson plans, unit plans and yearly plans.

     3. Steps for preparing lesson plans for teaching Punjabi using Herbartian and RCEM approaches for teaching of general science. Advantages and limitations of these approaches.


1. Evaluation: Meaning, need and objectives of evaluation in general science.

2. Formative and summative evaluation, salient features of the two.

3. Evaluation tools:

a) Diagnostic testing and remedial teaching

b) Oral tests

c) Quizzes

d) Essay type tests

e) Objective type tests



Teaching of Mathematics


1. Meaning and history of mathematics, assumptions, postulates, axioms, value of mathematics – Practical, social, moral, artistic, aesthetic and intellectual, place of mathematics in school curriculum, relationship of mathematics with other subjects.

2. Contributions of famous mathematicians: Bhaskaracharya, Aryabhatta, Leelabathi, Ramanujam, Euclid, Pythagorous, Rene-descarte.

3. Behavioural objectives: meaning and importance of behavioural objectives, writing instructional objectives for teaching of mathematics.


1. Curriculum: meaning, importance and principles of designing a good curriculum for mathematics, principles and rationale of curriculum development.

2. Textbooks: Meaning and importance of textbooks in mathematics, qualities of a good textbook in mathematics.

3. Co-curricular activities: Meaning and importance of co-curricular activities. Procedure for organizing co-curricular activities like quiz programme, skill development in answering puzzles, riddles, magic squares, short cuts mentioned in Vedic mathematics for teaching mathematics.


1. Audio-visual aids: meaning and importance of audio-visual aids in teaching mathematics viz., chalkboard, models, charts, television, video tapes and computers.

    Preparation of low cost teaching aids for teaching mathematics.

2. Methods of teaching mathematics:

i) Inductive-Deductive method

ii) Analytic-Synthetic method

iii) Project method

iv) Problem solving method

v) Heuristic method

vi) Laboratory method

3. Techniques of teaching mathematics:

i) Oral work

ii) Written work

iii) Home Assignment

iv) Drill

v) Self and supervised study


1. Development of teaching skills : Concept, components and preparation of any Micro-teaching lesson plans for developing the skill of :

a) Questioning

b) Reinforcement

c) Explanation

d) Illustration with examples and visuals

e) Stimulus variation

2. Lesson planning: Meaning and importance of lesson plans at macro level, meaning and purpose of unit and monthly plans.

3. Steps for preparing lesson plans for teaching mathematics using Herbartian and RCEM approaches. Advantages and limitations of these approaches.


1. Evaluation: Meaning of comprehensive and continuous evaluation.

2. Evaluation in mathematics in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behavioural developments.

3. Evaluation tools: Meaning, need and use of diagnostic testing and remedial teaching.




Paper :VI/VII

Teaching of Social Studies


1. Meaning, scope and importance of social studies in secondary schools. Social sciences and social studies: Core subjects of social sciences: history, civics, geography, economics: interrelationship between them. Objectives and values of teaching social studies in secondary schools.

2. Behavioural objectives: Meaning and importance of behavioural objectives, steps for preparing behavioural objectives for teaching of social studies.

3. Role of school and teacher in teaching of social studies. Qualities of a teacher teaching social studies.


1. Curriculum: Meaning, importance and principles of designing a good curriculum for social studies. Approaches to organize social studies curriculum in terms of correlation, integration, concentric, spiral, unit and chronological approaches.

2. Textbooks: Meaning and importance of textbooks in teaching of social studies. Qualities of a good textbook. Role of library and reference books in teaching of social studies.

3. Co-curricular Activities : Meaning and importance of co-curricular activities. Steps of organizing cocurricular activities. Role and organization of the following in teaching of social studies.

a) Excursion

b) Supervised Study

c) Dramatisation

d) Debates and Quizzes

e) Social Studies Clubs

f) Visit to museums


1. Audio-visuals Aids : Meaning, importance and classification of audio-visuals aids viz.,

a) Chalk – board

b) Data-line charts

c) Models

d) Scrap-books

e) Globes

f) Radio

g) Film strips

h) Television

i) Videos /CDs

j) OHP

k) Field trips

l) Computer

2. Methods of teaching social studies:

a) Lecture Method

b) Lecture cum discussion Method

c) Project Method

d) Story telling Method

e) Dramatisation

f) Socialised Recitation Method

3. Development of teaching skills: Concept, components and preparation of any Micro-teaching lesson plans for developing the skill of:

a) Questioning

b) Reinforcement

c) Explanation

d) Illustration with examples and visuals

e) Stimulus variation


1. Lesson planning: Meaning and importance of lesson plan unit and yearly plans.

2. Steps for preparing lesson plans for teaching social studies using Herbartian approach.

3. RCEM approach. Advantages and limitations, remedial teaching.


1. Evaluation: Meaning, need and objectives of evaluation in social studies.

2. Formative and summative evaluation, salient features of the two.

3. Evaluation techniques: their relative merits and demerits:

a) Diagnostic testing

b) Oral tests

c) Essay type tests

d) Objective type tests